scientific method

scientific method

1 A) Module 3 discusses the “scientific method” as well as the different methods of research that psychologists can use to study behaviour. Let’s suppose that you wanted to test the effects of caffeine on memory and decided to use the experiment as your method of research. Briefly explain how you might set up the study using experimentation (pg 34). In doing so, be sure to identify the following:
• The independent and dependent variables
• The control and experimental groups
1 B) Do you need to use random assignment? Explain
1 C) Provide an operational definition for the term “memory”.
1 D) Identify one thing that could possibly end up acting as a confounding variable and explain why it would be a confounding variable.
1 E) What type of conclusion can you draw from this method of research?
1 F) What is a placebo effect? Is it a concern in this study?
1 G) What is a double-blind procedure?Comment about whether it should be used in this study.

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2 A) Suppose you want to determine whether there is a relationship between “caffeine consumption” and “sociability” and decided to use the correlation method of research to answer this question. You find that these two variables are strongly related to one another and that the more caffeine a person drinks, the more sociable they are. Are you able to conclude that caffeine consumption causes sociability? Explain your answer.
2 B) Give two variables that would like be positively correlated with caffeine consumption in university students
2 C) Give two variables that would like be negatively correlated with caffeine consumption in university students
2 D)If the correlation coefficient between caffeine consumption and sociability is -60, describe how these two variables are related.
2 E) Draw a scatterplot that would approximately illustrate this correlation.submit a computer-generated scatterplot (using Excel, PowerPoint etc) or you can simply draw one by hand and scan it. (Use marker or something that will ensure it’s legibility)

3 A) Suppose that you have come to feel ill whenever you see your purple bowl. Explain how this situation could have come about through classical conditioning. Be sure to identify the US, UR, CS and CR.
3 B) Give an example of how generalization could happen in this situation.

4 A) Explain what exposure therapy and aversive conditioning have in common.
4 B) Explain the fundamental difference between systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning (It is NOT NECESSARY to explain the details of both these procedures.
4 C) Are behaviour modificationand systemicdesensitization related? Explain.

5 A) You and your childhood friend are reminiscing about your shared childhood experiences , and she says to you, “Do you remember when we were 7 yrs old and we thought we were so funny when we went to school wearing our slippers”? You have no memory of this event. Assuming the information did make it to your long term memory, explain what could be some of the main reasons why you have forgotten this incident (Modules 23, 25 and 26 deal with memory)
5B) What is the misinformation effect and give an example of how if could play a part in the above example (5A)


Questions must be answered in your own words. Please doNOT quote information from the text. I know that some of the material in your answers is coming from the text so a reference section is not necessary.
Please indicate the question number in your answers so as to make grading easier. For example, if you are answering question “1D)”, please preface your answer with “1D)”.

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