Biology Questions

Study Questions week 6

Remember information can be found in charts and tables not just in the paragraphs!

1. What are hormones and how do hormones work: Include where in the body are they made, what they have an effect on, and how they cause this effect- how they influence the cells they have an effect on? ( I do not want you to talk about any individual hormone in this question unless you are trying to explain by using an example.  This is a question about hormones in general) .

Discuss hormone regulation- how do hormones control their own levels in the body (actually describe the process, use an example if this helps you to explain it).


2. Discuss the relationship between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary glandANDdiscuss the relationship between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary.  For both of the above parts include how the hypothalamus influences secretion of hormones form each.  (hint there are significant differences)

What hormones are released from the anterior pituitary and what are all their functions?

What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary and what are their functions?


3. For each of the following hormones please answer the 4 questions below (it might be easiest to chart or graph this….

Hormones: T4/T3 (thyroxine/triiodothyronine), parathyroid hormone, epinephrine, cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone, melatonin

Questions to answer for each:

Where are the following hormones produced?

What specifically stimulates their secretions (hint probably another hormone or a change to the environment within the body).

What are the function(s) of each hormone?

And list specific disorders associated with Too Much AND Too Little of each.  Estrogen and Testosterone and Melatonin will not have disorders discussed in these chapters so you do not need to include that part for those hormones.


4. Describe insulin and glucagon: Include what organ and cells make them, what stimulates their release, AND what their functions are.

In diabetes mellitus, what are the two main reasons (pathology-abnormalities in homeostasis) that lead to elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia)?

What are the three main initial symptoms of diabetes mellitus?

What happens in the kidneys when glucose is elevatedand how does this result in  two of the initial symptoms?

What are the main similarities between glucagon and cortisol and the differences in regards to function and when they function.



5.  Describe intracellular and extracellular fluid.

After reading chapters 21 & 22, describe in detail the roles of the following systems in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance :

Central nervous system, Kidneys, Endocrine system, Respiration system, Skin, Digestive system (READ NEXT PART FIRST BECAUSE YOU CAN INCORPORATE THE ROLES OF THE SPECIFIC HORMONES WITH THE ROLES OF THE SYSTEMS IF YOU WISH)

Discuss in detail all hormones that effect fluid and electrolyte imbalance – some of these are multi-stepped processes make sure you explain all the steps in regards to how the hormone regulates these levels, including how/when the hormones are secreted and the effects that they have.(Some of these might work together- hint most hormones regulate from the kidney.  I NEED TO SEE THAT YOU UNDERSTAND THIS ENTIRE PROCESS).


6.  According to the book what are the functions of the following electrolytes: Sodium and chloride.  .  How might prolonged vomiting result in pH disturbances? Extra credit what specific pH disturbance can this cause?

Water intoxication and hyponatriemia often are experienced together.  Explain why they are experienced together then list some symptoms of both conditions.

What is acidosis, what are some reasons that it occurs, and what are the common symptoms?

What is edema and what are common causes of edema.


7.  What are the functions of the kidneys?

Describe the method in which fluid enters the glomerular capsule,

What does the filtrate consist of, and where does the filtrate go when it leaves the glomerulus?

Follow this filtrate  from the glomerulus -describe what occurs specifically as the filtrate moves through the nephron (include the processes of reabsorption and secretion, what they are and how they occur).

What are the functions of the collecting ducts?


8. Describe the passage of urine from the collecting ducts to the outside of the body. How does the act of urination happen in infants and what are the differences in urination for healthyadults?

Some solutes in urine are signs of disease or dysfunction- what would be abnormal in urine (that health care providers test for) and what disease process does each possibly represent (some disease conditions are told for you in this chapter other of the “abnormal” are given but the disease process is not.  You will need tothink about what you have already learned in this class)


9.  Megan has been diagnosed with cystitis, what is it, what is it most likely caused from ( I am looking for just one answer not a few possibilities) and what symptoms is she possibly experiencing?

She did not take all her pain medications and returns to the clinic a week later with high fever and soreness of her back.  Based on only this scenario and the description of the diseases in this chapter, what is most likely the cause of her symptoms, how did this happen?

Megan’s grandmother has chronic renal failure and does dialysis 3 times a week.  What is chronic renal failure and what are normal signs and symptoms?  Describe hemodialysis?


Needs help with similar assignment?

We are available 24x7 to deliver the best services and assignment ready within 3-4 hours? Order a custom-written, plagiarism-free paper

Get Answer Over WhatsApp Order Paper Now